Sanskrit nouns can be of either masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. They decline for the the three numbers that verbs also do, as well as for eight cases.
The first three cases all have the same translation in English, but have strict usages.
The nominative case is the subject of the sentence or the complement of a stative verb.
The vocative case is the case of direct address, and is thus usually a person noun. The characteristic vocative singular ending is no ending at all, and the plural vocative is always identical to the nominative plural.
The accusative case is the case of direct object of a non-stative verb. The goal of a motion verb is also put into the accusative case. Note that the characteristic accusative singular ending is m for masculines.
अश्वस् ashvas (masc.) stem: अश्व ashva ("horse")
|Nominative||अश्वस् ashvas||अश्वौ ashvau||अश्वास् ashvaas|
|Vocative||अश्व ashva||अश्वौ ashvau||अश्वास् ashvaas|
|Accusative||अश्वम् ashvam||अश्वौ ashvau||अश्वान् ashvaan|
फलम् phalam (neuter) stem: फल phala ("fruit")
|Nominative||फलम् phalam||फले phale||फलानि phalaani|
|Vocative||फल phala||फले phale||फलानि phalaani|
|Accusative||फलम् phalam||फले phale||फलानि phalaani|
Underline the stem and endings of these Sanskrit nouns. Give the number and case(s). अश्वास् फल अश्वान् फले
Write the correct Sanskrit ending for each word capitalized in these English sentences into Sanskrit. The TEACHER sees a PUPIL. The PUPILS see the TEACHERS. What are you saying, CHILD?