SUBSTANTIVES
SUBSTANTIVES
GOAL : Nominative, Accusative, Vocative cases of Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives
REVIEW : Sandhi of V+V, V+C, -m and -as

Nouns Sanskrit nouns can be of either masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. They decline for the the three numbers that verbs also do, as well as for eight cases. The first three cases all have the same translation in English, but have strict usages. The nominative case is the subject of the sentence or the complement of a stative verb. The vocative case is the case of direct address, and is thus usually a person noun. The characteristic vocative singular ending is no ending at all, and the plural vocative is always identical to the nominative plural. The accusative case is the case of direct object of a non-stative verb. The goal of a motion verb is also put into the accusative case. Note that the characteristic accusative singular ending is m for masculines.
अश्वस् ashvas (masc.) stem: अश्व ashva ("horse")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeअश्वस् ashvasअश्वौ ashvauअश्वास् ashvaas
Vocativeअश्व ashvaअश्वौ ashvauअश्वास् ashvaas
Accusativeअश्वम् ashvamअश्वौ ashvauअश्वान् ashvaan
फलम् phalam (neuter) stem: फल phala ("fruit")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeफलम् phalamफले phaleफलानि phalaani
Vocativeफल phalaफले phaleफलानि phalaani
Accusativeफलम् phalamफले phaleफलानि phalaani
Underline the stem and endings of these Sanskrit nouns. Give the number and case(s). अश्वास् फल अश्वान् फले
Write the correct Sanskrit ending for each word capitalized in these English sentences into Sanskrit. The TEACHER sees a PUPIL. The PUPILS see the TEACHERS. What are you saying, CHILD?

Pronouns Pronouns are small common words used to take the place of nouns. Pronouns do not have stems with endings added, so their irregular forms must be memorized by rote. Here are the promised personal pronouns in Sanskrit. Pronouns logically do not have the vocative case.
अहम् aham ("I"/"we")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeअहम् ahamअवाम् avaamवयम् vayam
Accusativeमाम् maamअवाम् avaamअस्मान् asmaan
त्वम् tvam ("you")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeत्वम् tvamयुवाम् yuvaamयूयम् yuuyam
Accusativeत्वाम् tvaamयुवाम् yuvaamयुष्मान् yus^maan
सस् sas (masc) ("he"/"they")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeसस् sas*तौ tauते te
Accusativeताम् taamतौ tauतान् taan
तत् tat (neuter) ("it"/"they")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeतत् tatते teतानि taani
Accusativeतत् tatते teतानि taani
कस् kas (masc.) ("who")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeकस् kasकौ kauके ke
Accusativeकम् kamकौ kauकान् kaan
किम् kim (neuter) ("what")
CaseSingularDualPlural
Nominativeकिम् kimके keकानि kaani
Accusativeकिम् kimके keकानि kaani
In neuters, the nominative cases and accusative case forms are identical for all substantives. This important pattern is preserved in all Indo-European languages. *Note that the form sa is used before before consonants, and sas elsewhere (in isolation and before vowels) but by the normal operation of sandhi it thereby becomes sa before all vowels except short a.
Replace the capitalized nouns with a form of सस् or तत् taking care of gender, number, and case. TEACHERS, speak Sanskrit! The pupils want a HORSE. THE FRUITS are sweet.
Change the case of these pronouns (nominative to accusative, accusative to nominative).

Adjectives. Masculine and Neuter Genders An adjective accords in number, gender, and case with the noun it qualifies, both attributively and predicatively, so there is an adjective form for each gender. Adjectives ending in a inflect in the masculine like aśvas, in the neuter like phalam. Adjectives used alone (not modifying a noun) act as nouns themselves. The 3rd person pronouns, besides the usual pronoun function of standing in for a noun, can also be used adjectivally as demonstratives. WIth all the sharing of functions and endings, Sanskrit groups nouns, pronouns, and adjectives into one part of speech called the substantive.
Translate these English phrases into Sanskrit. shining water. swift horses. pleasant fruit.

Substantive Sentences and Word Order It is very common for a Sanskrit sentence to lacks a verb, in which case a form of the verb 'to be' is understood. Words that form a natural group are placed together. Sentences should end strongly, i.e. with a verb or substantive. Longer sentences usually begin with the subject in a phrase.
Translate these Sanskrit substantive sentences.

Compounds Sanskrit compounds are more common even than in German. Whole phrases are often compressed into a compound word. The first type of compound to learn is the dvandva which replaces the use of च ca ("and"). As in all compounds, all but the last element are in stem form.
Replace the following Sanskrit phrases with dvandva compounds

Sandhi The vowels ī, ū and e when at the end of a dual inflection are not subject to sandhi and remain unchanged. Otherwise the endings of this chapter introduce the need to deal with sandhi of final -t and -n.
Final -t
a) changes to -d before g/gh, b/bh, y/v and h and vowels.
b) changes to -c before sh.
c) assimilates before c/ch, j/jh, ṭ/ṭh, ḍ/ḍh, d/dh, l/n/m.
Final -n
a) changes to nasal -msh, -mṣ, and -ms before c, ṭ, and t (respectively).
b) becomes -ŋ before ḍ/ḍh and -gn before j/jh or ś.
c) assimilates before l.
Join these Sanskrit words into complete utterances using Sandhi